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modals: He could have killed himself

After the modal verbs could, might, ought, should, would and needn't,
we often use perfect infinitives to refer to unreal situations.

Did you see him fall?
He could have killed himself.

(He did not kill himself.)

You should have written
- I was getting worried.

(The person did not write.)

I would have gone to university
if my parents had had more money.

(The speaker did not go to university.)

She needn't have sent me flowers.
(She did send flowers.)

Modal verbs with perfect infinitives can also refer to situations that are not unreal, but uncertain.

She could/ should/ ought to/ may/ will/ must have arrived by now.

Completing the sentences given below use either needn't + Perfect Infinitive or didn't need to ...


1) He knew the rule; so I needn't have explained it. (I did explain.) - не надо было мне объяснять - могла и не объяснять.
2) He knew the rule; so I didn't need to explain it. (I didn't.) - объяснять было и не нужно.

1) The woman cooked delicious and tasty things, but her husband swallowed them without noticing what he was eating. So she... (to go) to all the trouble of doing it.
2) She. . . (to ask) her husband where her suitcase was — she knew it herself.
3) She... (to take) a taxi as there was a bus stop nearby.
4) Her mother told her that she... (to leave) her husband and that by doing it she had made a bad mistake.
5) The husband was so engrossed in his newspaper that he didn't hear the door bang. She... (to slam) the door, as she failed to attract his attention.
6) The old woman... (to go) to visit her daughter because the latter came to see her first.

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Need not + have + past participle. Уроки современной разговорной грамматики английского языка от репетитора - English Grammar tuition on line via Skype

If we say that somebody need not have done something, we mean that he or she did it, but it was not necessary. Типа, "зря это сделали"

  • You need not have woken me up. - Мог и не будить меня.
    I don’t have to go to work today.
  • I needn’t have cooked so much food. - Не надо было готовить так много еды.
    Nobody was hungry.
  • They need not have come all this way. (= They came all this way, but it was not necessary.)
  • We need not have waited for his approval. (= We waited for his approval, but that was not necessary.)
  • You need not have bought a new car.
  • You need not have paid for that call.

Note that need not have does not mean the same as did not need to. When we say that somebody did not need to do something, we are simply saying that it was not necessary (whether or not it was done).


  • I needn't have watered the flowers. Just after I finished, it started raining.
  • It started raining, so I didn't need to water the flowers.
  • I need not have bought it. (= I bought it, but it was not necessary.)
  • I didn't need to buy it. (= It was not necessary for me to buy it.)

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